Tuesday, April 19, 2016

New article on Crop Sensors

"Recent survey showed that 80% of agricultural service providers offer precision agriculture technologies and equipment. In contrast, only 20% of crop producers are utilizing precision agriculture methodologies, including GPS, yield monitors, variable-rate technologies, automated steering, crop sensors, smart irrigation and others. In this article, we will focus on crop sensors, discuss some of the reasons for low level of adoption and look at potential benefits and limitations associated with their use."



Thursday, April 7, 2016

Drip Irrigation Training, Parma R&E Center

Thank you, Jim Klauzer, Clearwater Supply, for training Cropping Systems Agronomy team, University of Idaho, Parma R&E Center, on installing drip irrigation system for our spring wheat water x nitrogen study!




Thank you Kelli Belmont and Jordan McClintick for all your hard work establishing and maintaining our Cropping Systems Agronomy research plots, Parma ID!

Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus in Winter Wheat, Canyon Co, SW Idaho


Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus in Winter Wheat in grower's field near University of Idaho R&E Center, April 7, 2016.

Winter wheat affected by BYDV, Parma, SW Idaho.

Healthy winter wheat, unaffected by BYDV, Parma, SW Idaho.
The symptoms include:
  • "Yellowing and/or reddening of leaves starting at the leaf tip and moving toward the base and inward from the margins"
  • "The affected  plants exhibit stunting of both foliar and root tissues"





Rabbit feeding on winter wheat



Damage to winter wheat plot due to rabbit feeding, Parma R&E Center, SW Idaho, April 7, 2016. 

Cereal Leaf Beetle Damage in Winter Wheat - SW Idaho

Substantial numbers of Cereal Leaf Beetles (Oulema melanopus)(adults and larva) were found in winter wheat experimental plots at University of Idaho Parma R&E Center.




 Winter wheat leaves affected by cereal leaf beetle, University of Idaho Parma R&E Center, Parma, ID, April 7, 2016.


Adult Cereal Leaf Beetle in winter wheat, Parma R&E Center, SW Idaho. April 7, 2016

Cereal Leaf Beetle larva. 
Windowpaning.  One side of the leaf is scrapped off leaving the other side intact and translucent.  This gives the feeding lesion a window-like appearance.  Primarily caused by some young beetle and moth larvae. (University of Kentucky, 



Cereal leaf beetle eggs, Parma R&E Center, SW Idaho, April 7, 2016

Cereal Leaf Beetle eggs. Phillips et al., 2011 (http://jipm.oxfordjournals.org/content/jipm/2/2/C1.full.pdf)
Cereal Leaf Beetle larva and eggs, Parma R&E Center, SW Idaho, spring 2015.

The first symptoms of infestation became apparent during the last week of March. Currently, many plants have at least one leaf with some feeding damage. The cereal leaf beetle has a variety of hosts among cereals and grasses with preference to oat, barley, wheat, rye, timothy, fescue, grain sorghum and corn. Substantial crop yield loss and quality decrease can be expected due to lost photosynthetic activity resulting from the feeding damage.

Cereal leaf beetle is a quarantined insect the U.S., which means that the presence of beetles in grain restricts exports to uninfested areas. Fumigation is required to prevent the spread of beetle infestation.

Scouting of fields is vital both before and during the boot stage to assess for cereal leaf beetle presence and damage. It is recommended to scout weekly by walking through the field in a “W” pattern for best coverage. Stop at 5-10 locations depending on field size and examine 10 plants per location. Count the number of eggs and larvae per plant for smaller plants or per stem for larger plants.


Treatment thresholds:  3 larvae per plant and/or 3 eggs per plant before boot stage, and 1 larva per flag leaf after boot stage.


Management-chemical control (From PNW Insect Management Handbook)

  • bifenthrin (BrigadeƆ 2EC and WSB) at 6.4 fl oz/a (0.1 lb ai/a). Apply in spring if one or more eggs or larvae are detected or in late summer if beetles are defoliating seedling stands. Maximum amount allowed 12.8 fl oz/a (0.2 lb ai/a) per season but no more than once every 12 days. PHI 30 days prior to harvest for forage, hay and seed.
  • cyfluthrin (Baythroid XL) at 0.013 to 0.015 lb ai/a. PHI 0 days. REI 12 hr. Maximum amount allowed per 5 day interval is 0.022 lb ai/a. Maximum amount allowed per crop season is 0.089 lb ai/a.
  • lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) at 0.02 to 0.03 lb ai/a. PHI 0 days for grazing and forage, 7 days for straw and seed crop. REI 24 hr.
  • zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang MAX) at 0.0175 to 0.025 lb ai/a. PHI 0 days forage, hay; 7 days straw and seed screenings. REI 12 hr. For forage and hay use no more than 0.10 lb ai/a per season; make subsequent applications no closer than 7 days. For straw and seed screenings use no more than 0.125 lb ai/a per season; make subsequent applications no closer than 17 days.
University of Idaho CIS on cereal leaf beetle: http://www.cals.uidaho.edu/edcomm/pdf/CIS/CIS0994.pdf




Wednesday, April 6, 2016

Scout for Stripe Rust in Wheat in Idaho

A message from University of Idaho's Cereal Plant Pathologist, Juliet Marshall:

I found stripe rust in two fields in south east Idaho today. The first location was south of Aberdeen in a field of commercial wheat (Brundage).


The second location between American Falls and Pocatello was in a field of volunteer wheat (also Brundage) where stripe rust was found in November, 2015.

I highly recommend that anyone with a field of Brundage examine it closely for stripe rust, looking especially at lower leaves that could have been infected last fall. Snow cover protects wheat from freezing temperatures as well as the stripe rust. Fields that have been under snow will serve as good reservoirs for stripe rust to carry into our spring wheat.

All susceptible varieties should be scouted weekly from now on.

Please report infected fields (the approximate location) to Juliet Marshall (jmarshall@uidaho.edu) so I can keep alerts updated as the season progresses. This helps everyone!

Strobilurin fungicides are excellent preventative fungicides, as are triazoles. Triazoles (or triazole and strobilurin mixes) are more effective if there is a field with established infections. The attached table is (not a complete) list of fungicides put together by a group of pathologists belonging to the NCERA-184, with ratings for degree of control of several wheat diseases. 




Friday, April 1, 2016

Parma Cropping Systems Agronomy Field Day - Monday, June 20, 2016

2016 Parma Cropping Systems Agronomy Field Day has been scheduled for
JUNE 20, 2016
8:30 to 1 pm.

Time
Activity

8:30 am – 9:00 am
Registration

9:00 am – 12 noon
Touring the experimental plots/demos

12:00 noon – 1 pm
Lunch/indoor presentations


Crops/topics covered: winter & spring wheat, beans, corn, fresh peas/mustard/wheat rotations, nutrient management, water management, weed management, unmanned aerial vehicles, crop sensors.

Detailed information will follow shortly.

Please consider to attend/present and spread the word about the field day.



Please forward to those who may be interested.